World Abaza Congress

25 July 2024
Open palm to the world
State symbols of Abkhaz and Abaza
The history of the state symbols of the Abkhaz and Abaza people is rooted in antiquity. The image of the flag of the Abkhazian kingdom was found on the medieval maps of the Genoese. The modern flag and emblem of Abkhazia were approved on July 23, 1992. Their author was the Abkhaz artist Valery Gamgia. The state symbols of Abkhazia, as well as the national Abaza flag, reflect the history of nations.
Open palm to the world
The flag of the Republic of Abkhazia
The national flag of Abkhazia is a panel with seven alternating stripes of green and white colors along its length: four green and three white. The first bar on top is green. In the upper left corner, at the flagpole, there is a purple rectangle. In the center of the rectangle is a vertical image of the open palm of the human right hand, white. There are seven five-pointed stars above the palm in a semicircle - also white.
Flag of the Republic of Abkhazia
Opened white palm on a red background is a symbol of the Abkhaz statehood since the time of the Abkhaz Kingdom (VIII - X centuries), that is, it is already twelve centuries. Such an image was recorded on Genoa nautical charts of the XIII-XIV centuries. The purple flag with a white palm in the first centuries of our era was flying over the city of Sebastopolis, on the site of which is the current capital of Abkhazia, the city of Sukhum.
On the Petrus Veescone map of 1321, which is kept in the Vatican library, Sebastopolis is marked with a white flag with a red cross, accompanied by red circles
The seven five-pointed stars above the palm are the seven main areas of historical Abkhazia: Sadzen (Dzhigetiya), Bzyp, Gumaa, Abzhua, Samurzakan, Dal-Tsabal, Pskhuy-Aibga. These areas from the Khosta River to the Ingur River were the ethnic lands of the Abkhaz. In addition, the number "seven" for the Abkhaz, as well as for many nations of the world, has a sacred meaning.

This motive is reflected in the national flag of the Abaza, which is a red cloth with an open palm of white color and seven stars above it. As for the flag of the Abaza region of Karachay-Cherkessia, it was approved in 2010 and differs from the national flag in the number of stars: there are five instead of seven stars - in the number of villages in the region: Psyzh, Kubina, Inzhich-Chukun, Elburgan, Kara-Pago.
Flag of Abaza district of Karachay-Cherkessia
The alternation of green and white stripes on the flag of Abkhazia refers us to the flag of the Mountain Republic, which included Abkhazia. The mountain republic was proclaimed on May 11, 1918, and it consisted of seven Caucasian regions: Dagestan, Chechen-Ingushetia, Ossetia, Abkhazia, Kabarda, Adygea, Karachay-Balkaria. The green and white alternation of seven lanes is a symbol of tolerance among the Caucasian peoples, reminiscent of the fact that Islam (green) peacefully coexisted with Christianity (white). Abkhazia, as an ancient Christian country, was represented on the flag of the Mountain Republic by a white stripe. The Mountain Republic existed for only one year.
Flag of the Mountain Republic
From flag history
According to the first constitution of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia in 1925, the flag of the republic consisted of a red or scarlet cloth with an image in its upper corner, at the shaft, golden sickle and hammer. Above them was placed a red five-pointed star, framed by a gold border, and below are four letters "SSRA" (Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia - ed.)
Flag of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Abkhazia in 1925
© wikipedia
On January 7, 1935, the 7th All Abkhaz Congress of Soviets adopted a new Basic Law of the already Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia. According to this Constitution, a new abbreviation appeared on the Abkhaz flag. "SSRA" changed to "ASSRA".
Flag of the Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia, 1935
Soon, in 1937, these letters disappeared from the cloth of the Abkhaz flag, and instead of them the inscription "Georgian SSR" appeared in the Georgian, Abkhaz and Russian languages.
: Flag of the Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia in 1937
In 1951, a new flag of the Georgian SSR was adopted. It also became the flag of the Abkhaz ASSR. There were no additional inscriptions for the flag of the autonomous republic for the next almost three decades. Only in 1978, the inscription "АҦСНЫ АССР" appeared on the flag of Abkhazia.
Flag of the Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia of 1978
On July 23, 1992, the Supreme Council of Abkhazia abolished the Constitution of the Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of 1978 and declared the transition to the Constitution of the SSR of Abkhazia of 1925. According to this document, Abkhazia was not a Georgian autonomy, but a sovereign state, and was in contractual relations with Georgia. The official name of the country was also changed to "Republic of Abkhazia".

On the same day, the new state emblem and flag of Abkhazia were approved, the author of which was the chief art editor of the children's magazine "Amtsabz" Valery Gamgia.
Modern flag of the Republic of Abkhazia
Shooting Stars
Coat of Arms of the Republic of Abkhazia
The green color of the Abkhaz coat of arms symbolizes youth and life, white - spirituality. The big eight-pointed star of golden color at the bottom is a sign of rebirth. Two other stars in the upper part, on a white and green background, symbolize the unity of two cultural worlds - East and West.
Coat of arms of the Republic of Abkhazia
The plot of the emblem gives a reference to the legendary Nart Epos about the heroic brothers, which exists among the Abkhaz and Abaza, as well as a number of other peoples of the Caucasus. The rider, flying on the magic horse Arash and shooting an arrow to the stars in the center of the coat of arms, is Sasrykva, the main character of the Abkhaz tales of Narts. According to legend, he knocked down a star from the sky in order to warm and save the brothers who were roaming from cold.
From the history of the coat of arms
The State Emblem of the Socialist Soviet Republic of Abkhazia was a depiction of the golden sickle and hammer and the inscription "SSR Apsny" against the backdrop of a mountain landscape.

The coat of arms was framed by an ornament in the form of a wreath of corn, tobacco and grapes, tied with a red border. Above it was placed a red five-pointed star in the rays of the sun. On the red border there is an inscription in the Abkhaz language: "Апролетарцәа атәылақуа зегьы рҽы иҟоу, шәҽеидышәкыл!" - "Proletarians of all countries, unite!"

Since 1926, the inscription "SSR Apsny" was transferred from the central image to the circular red border and duplicated in the Russian and Georgian languages.
The coat of arms of the SSR Apsny 1926
On February 16, 1931, the SSR of Abkhazia was transformed into the Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the Georgian SSR. The coat of arms was Georgian.

It consisted of a round red field with a glowing five-pointed star at the top, a blue snowy ridge at the bottom, ears of corn on the right side and grape vines on the left. In the center of the emblem - images of golden sickle and hammer. There is an inscription in Georgian, Abkhaz and Russian languages around the field: "Proletarians of all countries, unite!".
The coat of arms of the SSR Apsny 1931
On July 6, 1978, an inscription was added to the emblem in two lines "Abkhaz ASSR" in Georgian and Abkhaz languages.
Coat of arms of the USSR Apsny 1978
Go ahead "Kiaraz"
National Anthem of Abkhazia
With the proclamation of independence of Abkhazia in 1992, the national anthem of the republic was approved. The basis of the anthem was the initial motive and words of the Abkhaz revolutionary song of the "Kiaraz" squad.

At the end of 1917, a gathering of peasants of the Gudauta sector was convened in the village of Dzhirkhua, where they decided to create an armed peasant squad "Kiaraz". It was headed by a young Bolshevik, Gudauta district commissioner Nestor Lakoba, later - a prominent statesman of Soviet Abkhazia and chairman of the Council of People's Commissars.

During the occupation of Abkhazia by the troops of the Georgian Democratic Republic, the struggle of "Kiaraz" for the establishment of Soviet power in the republic was identified by the population with the restoration of Abkhaz statehood. In this connection, "Kiaraz" has become a symbol of the liberation movement of the Abkhaz people.
Peasant squad "Kiaraz" in the fall of 1918 in the area of Adler-Tuapse
© From the archive of Yakub Lakoba
Now the Abkhaz anthem is officially called "Aiaaira", which is translated from the Abkhaz as "victory". The final status of the anthem was approved by the bill of the President Sergey Bagapsh in 2007.

The national anthem of the republic must always perform in strict accordance with the approved musical version and text.
National Anthem of the Republic of Abkhazia in the Abkhaz language
Шәнеибац, шәнеибац,
Аҧсуаа рыҷкәынцәа.
Аҧсны азыҳәан
Ашьа казҭәаз,
Аҧсуаа рыҷкәынцәа.
Ашьа казҭәаз,
Аҧсуаа рыҷкәынцәа.
О-ҳо-ҳо-о ҳо-о-Рада
О-ҳо-ҳо-о ҳо-о-Рада-Ра!
Ажәҩан мрадоуп, еҵәадоуп
Уара уда Аҧсынра!
Еҵәa-бырлаш Аҧсынтәла,
Улҧха згәаҵақәа ирҭыҧхо,
Геи-шьхеи рыҧшӡара заҧшнылаз.
Жәлар ламысла иҳаракхоит.
Рада, Раида, Рарира
Рада, Рерама, Рерашьа.
Нарҭаа риирa-зиироу
Афырхацәа Ран-Гуашьа
Аҧсынтәыла-иҧшьоу атәыла
Зхы здиныҳәалаз Анцәа
Зқьышықәасала имҩасхьо гылоуп
Рыжәҩа еибырҭоит уҧацәа.
Шәнеибац Аҧсныжәлар!
Аишьцәа, шәнеибац!
Нхыҵ-аахыҵ ҳаицуп!
Ҳазшаз илаҧш
Ҳхыуп иаҳхымшәо
Ҧеҧш лаша ҳзышуп!
Шәнеибац, Аҧсныжәлар,
Игылеит ҳамра,
Иақәым ҭашәара!
Шьардаамҭа, Аҧсынра.

National Anthem of the Republic of Abkhazia
Sons of Abkhaz!
Who spilled their blood
For Abkhazia
Sons of Abkhaz.
Who spilled their blood
For freedom
Abkhaz sons.
Oh ho ho ho ho ho
Oh-ho-ho-o ho-oh-Rada-Ra!
The sky without the sun, without stars -
Without you, Apsny!
Diamond scattering of stars, Abkhazia,
Your grace glimmers in every heart.
You have absorbed the beauty of the sea and the mountains,
And it grows with the conscience of your people.
Rada, Raida, Rarira
Rada, Rerama, Rerash.
Born as Nart heroes
From mother Sataney-Guascha,
Apsny - holy land,
On which the Lord himself prays.
Gone millennia back up
Shoulder to shoulder your sons.
Let's go the people of Abkhazia!
Let's go brothers!
North and south - we are one!
God's eye
Protects us unceasingly.
We are waiting for a bright future!
Let's go, the people of Abkhazia,
Our sun has risen
Which will never go down!
Together with each mother and her born child
Apsny forever!
Text by – Astanda Ardzinba, photo editor – Naala Avidzba, editor Olga Soldatenkova, editor-in-chief – Amina Lazba